Next-Generation Semiconductor Wires: Cobalt
The invention of chip/integrated circuit/semiconductor is the premise for human to enter the information society. As the largest manufacturing sector in the modern era, the chip industry — the semiconductor industry — is at the forefront of technological innovation and represents human industrial manufacturing capabilities. The third industrial revolution, based on semiconductor, has been continually detonated, both by policy and market, with the assistance of artificial intelligence (and big data). China’s semiconductor sector has provided the greatest development opportunities since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. The pace of innovation for new materials is expected to increase as Moore’s Law approaches its end. Today, twenty years after IBM introduced “copper” to replace “aluminum”, the official era of “cobalt,” in the semiconductor industry, is set for a turning point across eras.
Recent years have seen many key moments in the semiconductor industry, most notably in device technology as well as transistor architecture. There is a new turning point coming in the semiconductor industry. Innovation of new materials is being followed by “cobalt”, which will slowly end “tungsten” or “copper”.
Enter the Age of Cobalt Wires
As the semiconductor manufacturing process was developed below 10 nanometers the shortcomings of the conductor “copper”, such as insufficient conduction, began to show. The process technology reached the bottleneck between 10 nanometers (10 nanometers) and 7 nanometers (7 nanometers). Major semiconductor producers and equipment companies began investing in new materials research to solve the problems of semiconductor manufacturing technology.
Applied Materials has a reputation for being a leader in the field of semiconductor equipment. It’s the pioneer semiconductor manufacturer to employ “cobalt,” instead of traditional “copper”, and “tungsten” conductor materials. It is poised to implement such an industrial revolution in commercial chips. This has historic significance.
With advanced technology between 10 and 7, “cobalt”, as a conductor, can be achieved stronger conductivity and lower power consumption. The future may see it drop to as low as 5 or 3 nanometer process points.
The efficiency of metal-coated contacts, wires and transistors is not the same as that of transistors. They are less efficient when smaller than they are. When the wire is compared with a straw it will be more susceptible to blocking. There are three main criteria for selecting the right wire material: filling ability, resistance, and reliability.
Aluminium is less reliable for processes exceeding 30 nanometers. However, copper is highly-qualified and is still an important metal. Unfortunately, this is due to the poor performance of aluminum, copper and tungsten in high-end semiconductor processes that are below 20 nanometers. However, cobalt is an emerging force with its new filling power, reliability and resistance. It is particularly important in high-end semiconductor technology below 10/7 nanometers.
Cobalt would be widely used in the Semiconductor Field
The advantages cobalt has as a small-scale semiconductor make it possible for the industry to expect that “cobalt”, metal materials, will begin at 7/10 nanometers in order to enter the manufacturing of semiconductor wires. Expect “cobalt” materials to expand beyond the 5-nanometer process.
Intel is believed to have revealed that the IEEE will include 10 parts interconnection layers on nanometer technology technology nodes. Details of imported cobalt metal, which can be found in the 10 nm bottom node interconnection of 2 layer imported cobalt, can increase electron mobility and decrease the access to the double resistance. It’s a large number of semiconductor manufacturing companies.
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