A type of functional material known as shape memory alloy has excellent strength, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. It is also non-toxic. There are promising medical applications. It can only be given a temperature between 20 and 300 to recover its mother phase’s shape after it has been deformed in low temperature phases of the Nitinol Shape Memory Alloy. It has an expansion rate of more than 20%, a fatigue life up to 107 times and damping characteristics that are superior than others.
Nitinol Wire classification
1. 1940: Gold bow wires, cobalt-chromium alloy wire and round stainless steel wire.
2. Martensite stabilized alloys were first created in 1960. These alloys consisted primarily of nickel-titanium and had been formed by deformation within the martensite state. This arch wire is flexible and produces a lighter correction force.
3. 1980. The Chinese nickel titanium and Japanese nickel titanium allotment arch wires had austenite activation alloys. This meant that they could show austenite in any state and did not exhibit temperature-induced Martensite, whether placed within or outside of the mouth.
4. Martensite activated nickel–titanium alloy was discovered in 1990. It has a TTR lower than or very near to the oral cavities temperature.
5. Gradedthermodynamic (Higher thermodynamic nickel titanium alloy): When the TTR temperature rises above the oral temperature, around 40degC the archwire of nickel-titanium is in a multicomponent state. This is why the archwire feels relatively soft when placed into the cavity.
Nitinol can be used in clinical applications
1. It’s used to align and level the patient’s dentition early. Nitinol’s shape memory and superelasticity of Nitinol Arch wires make them a common part of the clinical treatment.
2. Nitinol extensions springs, push springs and Nitinol pull springs are orthodontic springs. They can be used to treat orthodontic problems such as opening up gaps between teeth or pulling teeth in different ways.
3. Dr. Soma in Japan has developed the LH-arch wire. LH stands for Low Hysteresis. It is the name of the arch wire that’s ligated to the bracket. Very little is the difference between stress created when an arch wire returns slowly to its original shape after it is moved.
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