Properties and Applications of Boron Carbide

The boron-carbidide crystal exhibits a rhombohedral pattern. Its crystal lattice belonged to the D3d5/R3m spatial lattice. You can describe the rhombohedral design as a cubic primitive cell structure that extends diagonally through the space and forms an irregular icosahedron in each corner. The c-axis is the hexagonal sign. It runs parallel to the space’s diagonal. A linear chain is formed when three boronatoms join the adjacent icosahedron. Thus, each unit cell is composed of 12 icosahedral positions. Three positions can be found on the linear-chain. Consider the B-atom as due to its position in the icosahedron, and the C-atom is thought to be located on a linear link. The Stoichiometry for B12C3 then becomes B4C.

1. Basic properties and potential uses of Boron Carbide

Low density

B4C’s density is 2.52g/cm3. An empirical formula (9) can show the relation between density and carbon in homogeneous zones. It is as follows:


The low density of Boron Carbide makes it difficult to achieve the same performance as the high density. This is why lightweight armor can be used to lower the tank and car body weights. Conserve energy.

(2) Hardness and wear resistance

B4C exhibits high wear resistance and super toughness. With an increase in C content, B4C’s Vickers hardness increases within the homogeneous region. If the carbon contents are 10.6% and 20% respectively, then the hardness can rise to 29.1 GPa. However, hardness 21 may reach 37.7 GPa when carbon content exceeds 20%. At high temperatures, it is very hard (>30GPa). An empirical formula (10 ):

) can show the temperature-dependent change in hardness.


In formula H0—the hardness at ambient temperature.

T—is the temperature.

A—is a constant that is related to carbon.

This recipe is good for 201700. B4C is the second-hardest material in the world after diamond and cubic BN.
B4C has a higher wear resistance as the temperature increases. Between 20 and 1400, friction coefficients decrease with increasing temperature. They drop to 0.01 at around 1400. The friction rate is also continuing to fall. B4C was used to sandblast nozzles due to its exceptional hardness, and high friction characteristics.
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