"Water reduction" mechanism of polycarboxylic ether based superplasticizers

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concrete superplasticizers

These are prepared basically by making various compounds such as polycarboxylate water–reducing mother liquor and/or polycarboxylate shrink-preserving mother liquor. It is the most important role for water-reducing mothers in superplasticizer. Although it is possible that the quantity of the mother solution may change with the changes in concrete, I’ve never seen water-reducing mothers added to superplasticizer. Perhaps because the sand quality is too high.
The absolute main substance in the water-reducing liquid is the water-reducing mom liquid. This is because it reduces the concrete cement-water ratio and helps to ensure fluidity and concrete mix workability. The water-reducing mother liquid also makes it easier to work in the construction area.

As we know, cement is not only water-soluble in concrete; the other materials have a significant impact on superplasticizer molecules. Water reducing agents should be mainly directed at cement. First, we will discuss the cement hydration process.

Three stages are involved in the general portland cement hydration process:

(1) Dissolution stage. When cement is placed in direct contact with water it causes the surface to hydrate. A small quantity of hydration product are produced, which can be immediately dissolved in the water. Hydration can continue on the exposed surface until there is a saturated solution.

(2) Gelation stage. Because of the saturation of the solution the product can’t be dissolved and becomes colloidal particles. As the amount of hydration products increases, the cement aggregates and the cement solution gradually lose their plasticity. This is known as the “coagulation phenomenon”.

(3) Crystallization stage. A colloid made of microscopic crystallines is not stable and can slowly recrystallize to become macroscopic crystals.

The main role for steric hindrance is played by the superplasticizers made of polycarboxylic alcohol based superplasticizers in the cement slurry. Complexation of calcium ions, lubrication for hydration film play important roles. important role.

1. Steric hindrance:

Cement molecules are attracted to each other during cement’s hydration, which results in flocculation.

The flocculation structure will form when the cement molecules encapsulate some of the water molecules. It accounts for approximately 10%-30% (which may explain why the water reducer has a maximum water reducing rate). Since it is enclosed by cement molecules it can’t participate in free flow and lubrication of cement molecules. It will affect concrete mix fluidity. Once the concrete particles come in contact with the polycarboxylate concrete cement admixture molecules, the main chain is negatively charged.

concrete admixture

The surface of negatively charged cement particles can attract molecules, a phenomenon known as “anchoring”, while the polycarboxylate Superplasticizer is used to extend the side chains of molecules in cement slurry. These side chains can then form an adsorption layers with a particular thickness. They can cross the side chains with the other polycarboxylic acids superplasticizer molecules in order to form a long, three-dimensional, crossed side chain. Conformation. The cement particles moving towards each other will cause the adsorption layers to overlap. A larger overlapping area means that there is more repulsion among the cement particles. This improves the dispersibility. The cement particles must be destroyed from their flocculation. You can understand how cement flocculation causes water to escape. Water reducing molecules are able to increase the lubricating efficiency of water molecules and reduce the amount of water molecules in thin air.

2. Electrostatic repulsion theory:

The superplasticizer polycarboxylic acids

Anionic groups are found in molecules (COO2-) and cement particles’ surfaces have positive charges (Ca2+). Therefore, an anionic Polycarboxylic Acid superplasticizer molecules can adsorb cement particles with positively charged surfaces. You can make the cement particles into a hedgehog with a negative charge. It is possible to improve the dispersibility among cement particles by having them have the same negative charge. In the cement paste, both the negatively charged carboxyl group and the positively charged calcium are responsible for the formation of unstable complexes. Once the calcium is dissolved in cement, it becomes more concentrated, which reduces calcium ions. The formation of gel particles can be slowed down, the cement hydration process is inhibited, and the dispersion of cement particles improved. A higher level of Polycarboxylic acids superplasticizers with carboxylate ions, which is the highest anion charge density, will lead to a better dispersion performance (acid-ether) for cement particles. Inhibiting the cement’s initial hydrolysis can be caused by a decrease in calcium ion levels. As the cement hydrates, it becomes more complex. The superplasticizer Polycarboxylic Acid has an effect that slows down but does not affect the strength.

3. Lubrication

The hydrophilic group is found in the branched chains of polycarboxylic acid supraplasticizer molecule. They form a water film over the cement particles, by reacting with water molecules. This decreases their surface energy. The cement particles slip easily. Combining the two causes separation of cement particles. This concrete mixture is more fluid.

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